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Travelling grate pelletizing is a mature technology and the solution of choice for the challenges of the 21st century in raw material preparation for the steel industry. Through its scalability up to 9 Mt/yr, its flexibility regarding the feedstock, and its high energy efficiency, low environmental impact, travelling grate pelletizing will provide the basis of the growth of the industry, whose capacity is projected to increase from currently approximately 360Mt/yr currently to about 550Mt/yr in 2026.

Due to its various recuperation principles, the travelling grate pelletizing process is the most energy efficient commercially available. With the introduction of the fourth recuperation principle, the application of advanced burner technology and the utilization of plant expert systems for the efficient operation of such plants, the new generation of pelletizing plants consumes substantially less energy and consequently emits less CO2 and other toxic waste gases



fluidized bed is a physical phenomenon occurring when a quantity of a solid particulate substance (usually present in a holding vessel) is placed under appropriate conditions to cause a solid/fluid mixture to behave as a fluid. This is usually achieved by the introduction of pressurized fluid through the particulate medium. This results in the medium then having many properties and characteristics of normal fluids, such as the ability to free-flow under gravity, or to be pumped using fluid type technologies.


Fluidized beds are used as a technical process which has the ability to promote high levels of contact between gases and solids. In a fluidized bed a characteristic set of basic properties can be utilized, indispensable to modern process and chemical engineering, these properties include:

  • Extremely high surface area contact between fluid and solid per unit bed volume
  • High relative velocities between the fluid and the dispersed solid phase.
  • High levels of intermixing of the particulate phase.
  • Frequent particle-particle and particle-wall collisions.

Fluidized beds are also used for efficient bulk drying of materials. Fluidized bed technology in dryers increases efficiency by allowing for the entire surface of the drying material to be suspended and therefore exposed to the air. This process can also be combined with heating or cooling, if necessary, according to the specifications of the application.


Circulating fluidized bed is a relatively new technology with the ability to achieve lower emission of pollutants. The circulating fluidized bed (CFB) is a developing technology for coal combustion to achieve lower emission of pollutants. By using this technology, up to 95% of pollutants can be absorbed before being emitted to the atmosphere. Circulating Fluidized Bed combustion has given boiler and power plant operators a greater flexibility in burning a wide range of coal and other fuels. All this without compromising efficiency and with reduced pollution. 

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