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Biomass is fuel that is developed from organic materials, a renewable and sustainable source of energy used to create electricity or other forms of power.

Biomass is a renewable source of fuel to produce energy because:

  • waste residues will always exist – in terms of scrap wood, mill residuals and forest resources; and
  • properly managed forests will always have more trees, and we will always have crops and the residual biological matter from those crops.

Biomass power is carbon neutral electricity generated from renewable organic waste that would otherwise be dumped in landfills, openly burned, or left as fodder for forest fires.When burned, the energy in biomass is released as heat. In biomass power plants, wood waste or other waste is burned to produce steam that runs a turbine to make electricity, or that provides heat to industries and homes.



The Palm Oil industry generates large quantity of wastes whose disposal is a challenging task. In the Palm Oil mill, fresh fruit bunches are sterilized after which the oil fruits can be removed from the branches. The empty fruit bunches (are left as residues, and the fruits are pressed in oil mills. The Palm Oil fruits are then pressed, and the kernel is separated from the press cake (mesocarp fibers). The palm kernels are then crushed and the kernels then transported and pressed in separate mills. In a typical Palm Oil plantation, almost 70% of the fresh fruit bunches are turned into wastes in the form of empty fruit bunches, fibers and shells, as well as liquid effluent. These by-products can be converted to value-added products or energy to generate additional profit for the Palm Oil Industry.

Methane generated from effluent of palm oil processing waste is 21 times more potent than CO2. Hence, it is viable to capture the biogas and utilize to replace non renewable energy to generate electricity which has annual reduction of 37,251 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent.


Wood energy is one of the oldest forms of energy used for heating and processes and Wood energy for commercial and industrial applications are similar except the technology and types of wood fuel are slightly more advanced.  The two main forms of wood energy are woodchip and wood-pellets.


  •  Low cost fuel and next cheapest options after coal
  •  Can be burnt in existing coal boilers with some adjustments
  •  Renewable fuel sourced from local forest residues
  •  Very low ash content
  • Low emissions compared to coal


  •   Low cost option when compared to LPG, diesel or electricity
  •  Higher energy density fuel requires less storage space than woodchip
  •  Can be burnt in existing coal boilers with some adjustments
  •  Very low ash content
  •  Low emissions compared to coal





Coal is a flammable black hard rock used as a solid fossil fuel. It is mainly made up of 65-95% carbon and also contains hydrogen, sulphur, oxygen and nitrogen. It is a sedimentary rock formed from peat, by the pressure of rocks laid down later on top.

However, there are actually two main types of coal: ‘thermal’ coal, which is mostly used for power generation, and ‘metallurgical’ coal, which is mostly used for steel production. Thermal coal is more abundant, has lower carbon content and is higher in moisture than metallurgical coal.

As well as generating power, coal is also commonly used in cement manufacturing and as a component of thousands of other products.

Both types of coal are formed in a similar manner; from decomposed vegetation that was compressed beneath layers of sand, sediment and rock at high temperatures over millions of years.

Simply put, coal-fired electricity generation is a five-step process:

  • Thermal coal (either black or brown) that has been pulverized to a fine powder is burned
  • The resulting heat is used to turn water into steam
  • The steam at very high pressure is then used to spin a turbine, connected to an electrical generator
  • The spinning turbine causes large magnets to turn within copper wire coils; this is called the generator
  • The moving magnets cause electrons in the wires to move from one place to another, creating an electrical current and producing electricity.



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